Purpose: To examine the mediating role of social capital in the relationship between citizens’ behaviour and public accountability in the local governments of Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: The paper used a c rosssectional research survey design to study a period accountability of local governments drawing a sample of 600 respondents from 120 local governments of all the four regions of Uganda. The study secured a response rate of 85.2%. The study employed Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS), a form of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), to test for mediating effects based on bootstrap. Findings: Evidence show that public accountability in local governments is a function of citizens’ behaviour and social capital. Social capital emerged a partial mediator in the relationship between citizens’ behaviour and public accountability. Research limita tions/implications: The cross-sectional research design adopted in the study captures only one-time period. Future studies could appropriately use a longitudinal research approach to establish this relationship so as to overcome the limitations associated with single period method.