Determinants Impacting Impulse Buying of Green Beauty Products

Table of contents

1. I. Introduction

samples, and existing products. A lot of factors are responsible for impulse buying. Today, the majority of decisions regarding purchases are produced at the time of sale (around 70%) (Heilman, Nakamoto, & Rao, 2002).

Bangladesh has been developing considerably quicker recently, with an average annual GDP growth of more than 6.0 percent ($2,948 in 2013 in terms of PPPadjusted GDP per person). The country's consumer behavior pattern has changed because of increased urbanization, rising family income, rising employment of women, and foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow. Bangladeshi consumers are more inclined to be willing to make purchases (Munir, Muehlstein, & Nauhbar, 2015).

Products that are used to enhance and improve one's appearance are known as green cosmetics/beauty products. Due to their greater availability and lack of side effects, herbal substances are preferred over chemical ones (Kaur, Singh, Singh, & Kaur, 2021). Powders, creams, face packs, moisturizers, lotions, shampoo, hair oils, hair conditioners, nail paint, and other items fall under the category of beauty products. Green products routinely feature environmental attributes, which are bene ficial to humanity and the planet (Usrey, Palihawadana, Saridakis, & Theotokis, 2020).These green beauty products captivate and arouse the curiosity of both male and female consumers.

The market for skin care products in Bangladesh is anticipated to improve from $1.23 billion (in the year2020) to $2.12 billion in 2027, with an average yearly rate of 8.1 percent between 2021 and 2027. The market for skin care products will gain $960 million in revenue between 2020 and 2027. "Meena Herbal" (a derivative of Bengal Herbal Garden Limited of Gemcon Group) was released in the market in 2007. In 2016, Neem Laboratories (Pvt.) introduced "Neem Original," which ACI acquired, and "Lever Ayush" by Unilever Bangladesh, which was launched in late 2018. The most recent release of "Aarong Earth" from Aarong, a brand owned by BRAC Bangladesh, with the motto "Come Back to Nature," confirms the sector's enormous potential.

In compliance with global sustainable development trends, an environmental movement is underway in the current consumer market. Conscious customers are choosing more ecologically friendly angladesh has experienced a significant change in the market for green products over the past few years because of growing environmental awareness. Both customers' attitudes about desire to buy organic cosmetics and their opinions of the natural goods are favorable (Nguyen, Nguyen, & Vo, 2019). Organic skin care products have grown in popularity in Bangladesh as customers have become more aware of the benefits of self-care. Today's consumers are "thinking green" and are prepared to pay more for ecologically friendly beauty products. Knowing how customers behave is one of the critical goals for every organizational successes in today's challenging business market (Mubarak, 2020). Impulse buying is a fundamental consumer trait to research. Any purchase done on the spur of the moment is referred to as sudden and is unexpected and immediate (Chowdhury, 2020). Impulsive purchases might include everything from new products (both conventional and organic) to items, a sign that the trend toward conscious purchasing is growing. (Driessen, Hillebrand, Kok, & Verhallen, 2013) The objective of this study is to identify and rank the determinants affecting customers' impulse purchases of green beauty products. In addition, this paper also aims to discover the degree of influence of factors to impulse buying of green cosmetics in Dhaka City.

2. II. Literature Review

An impulse purchase is a rising idea that is crucial to boosting sales, particularly in supermarkets. In this competitive era, businesses must comprehend consumer behavior (Akyuz, 2018). Impulse shopping is defined as shopping for products or items without making a list before visiting a store (Talukdar & Lindsey, 2013).When buyers have an unexpected, frequently strong need to buy something instantly, which is known as impulse buying. To comprehend the elements affecting impulse purchases, academic researchers and professionals have performed several studies (Lim & Yazdanifard, 2015). A variety of factors, including consumer characteristics, shopping experience, environmental factors, and cultural factors, have positive impact on impulsive shoppers (Muruganantham & Consumers may prefer sustainable products because they perceive products with green attributes to be more effective than conventional alternatives. Due to the importance of green characteristics in evaluating the overall performance of products, there exist numerous studies exploring the role of such characteristics in affecting consumer preferences as well as purchase intention (Luchs & Kumar, 2017). Consumers have positive sentiments about environmentally friendly items and even report being willing to pay more for them since moral behavior benefits everyone in society (Berger, 2019).

Humans have a tendency toward utilizing and purchasing products that are natural and organic, such as food, clothing, and toiletries. Product attributes are associated with a consumer's propensity to make an unplanned buy during grocery shopping and retail characteristics. Products with comprehensive label explanations and nutritional value are more well-liked by impulsive consumers (Kozup, Creyer, & Burton, 2003). Customers have positive attitude toward the desire to purchase organic cosmetics. Additionally, consumer awareness, product knowledge, safety considerations, and environmental protection consciousness all play significant roles in influencing consumers' favorable attitudes toward green cosmetics (Nguyen et al., 2019).

Due to their lack of toxins and ease of decomposition, green beauty products are viewed as environmentally beneficial items (Wu, Zhou, & Chien, 2019). To develop organic consumption, environmental concern is therefore seen as the first step. Green cosmetic goods are more likely to be bought immediately and repeatedly by consumers whose attitudes are positively influenced by environmental concerns (Nguyen et al., 2019). A significant factor influencing purchasing behavior is the consumer's level of trust in eco-brands (Sewwandi & Dinesha, 2022). A vital indicator for the intention to buy green goods is the green trust (Tarabieh, 2021).Furthermore the packaging has a significant influence on the consumer's choice to buy (Cahyorini & Rusfian, 2012).

Consumer purchasing behavior is also influenced by promotional tactics, including discounts, gifts, coupons, different schemes, price promotions, loyalty programs, gift packages, competitions, and prize packs. Sales promotion uses many incentive tactics, most of which are short-term, to encourage customers and, or retailers to complete their purchases faster or to make more sales (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). On the other sides, the likelihood of purchase can also rise when several people are present (Luo, 2004). For instance, people tend to make more purchases in a group. Peer influence is significant in explaining green behavior, according to research on green purchasing (Khare, 2015).

Consumers' impulsiveness toward green beauty products is high not only in Bangladesh but also worldwide. Green products are becoming more popular, and demand for them is expanding. The main factors driving spontaneous purchases of green cosmetics include product benefits, pricing value, promotions, and health benefits. Considering the current situation, this research is crucial for both green cosmetics manufacturers and retailers to understand the elements that influence consumers' impulse buying behavior.

3. III. Research Gap

This study is crucial for both companies that manufacture green beauty products and retailers that sell them to consumers. Even though there have been numerous studies in this field, most of the study has concentrated on impulse purchases of foods, groceries, clothing, and other consumer goods rather than green beauty products. Additionally, we also identified gaps in the conceptual frameworks of several studies. There have been no studies that particularly looked at these six factors (Perceived Product Benefits, Environmental concern, Green Trust, Packaging, Sales Promotions, and Peer Influences) to investigate customers' impulse buying tendencies for green beauty products as a group. As a result, there is a genuine empirical gap in the literature in this field.

4. IV. Conceptual Framework

Impulse buying is a prevalent aspect of consumer behavior, accounting for a substantial proportion of sales across various product varieties (Chowdhury & Mehjabeen, 2021). Over the years, although the impulse purchasing phenomenon has caused research interest, it is since the 1980s, that researchers have related impulse purchases with a focus on consumer characteristics, traits, and behavioral dimensions (Stern, 1962). Product benefits are the values customers get by using a product to satisfy their needs minus associated costs. Many businesses are searching for methods to "fine-tune" their product mix with preserving diversity and unique products (Grocer, 2011). Some marketers now portray their goods as being healthy (Bublitz & Peracchio, 2015). Thus, humans have a tendency toward utilizing and purchasing products that are natural and organic. Customers have a positive attitude toward the desire to buy green cosmetics, as well as a positive perception of the environment. (Nguyen et al., 2019). Therefore, the study's first hypothesis is: H1: Perceived Product Benefits are Positively Associated with Impulse Purchase of Green Beauty Products.

5. b) Environmental Concern

Individuals concerned about the environment tend to focus more on the ingredients in products and the production method (Nguyen et al., 2019). Due to their non-toxicity and ease of decomposition, green cosmetics are viewed as environmentally beneficial goods (Van Loo, Diem, Pieniak, & Verbeke, 2013). To foster green consumerism, environmental concern is therefore considered as the first step. Ecological awareness is a fundamental step that leads to the purchasing of natural items with the aim of environmental protection (Smith & Paladino, 2010). Consumer attitudes about purchasing and repurchasing H2: Environmental Concern is Positively Associated with Impulse Purchase of Green Beauty Products.

6. c) Green Trust

The best way to define trust is as "the ordinary person's willingness to believe in the product's capacity to achieve its purpose" (Chaudhuri & Holbrook, 2001). Trust suggests that customers are inclined to think favorably of the product. When evaluating trust in an air of expectation, the buyer wants to believe that the item is knowledgeable, responsible, and fair (Tarabieh, 2021). Trust is a psychological condition characterized by a willingness to embrace receptivity and a focus on constructive intentions (Foroudi, Nazarian, & Aziz, 2020). The definition of "green trust" is "a desire to rely on a commodity as a result of expectations regarding its environmental friendliness attributes"(Chen, 2010). Furthermore there is a strong correlation between the intention to make green purchases and green trust (Tarabieh, 2021). Therefore, our third hypothesis is: H3: Green Trust is Positively Associated with Impulse Purchase of Green Beauty Products.

7. d) Packaging

Product marketing and distribution depend on packaging in many ways. According to (Deng, 2009). Customers scrutinize the packaging of food products, and it has been found that there is a direct link between packaging and consumer buying intent. Additionally, there was a clear association between packaging, customer loyalty, and buyer desire to make an instant buy (Khraim, 2011).The shopper's buying decision at the time of sale is significantly influenced by packaging design. It has been demonstrated that consumers' judgments of the product's visual heaviness are influenced by where the product image is placed on a package front. The impacts of package form on volume perception, packaging preference, choice, and consumption have recently been the focus of marketing researchers (Deng, 2009). In summary, the study's fourth hypothesis is: H4: Packaging is Positively Associated with Impulse Purchase of Green Beauty Products.

8. e) Sales Promotion

A strategy that acts as a direct enticement is sales promotion, providing customers, salespeople, or resellers with additional benefits or incentives for a product (Nagadeepa, Selvi, & Pushpa, 2015). Sales promotions have a favorable impact on consumer behavior (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). When supermarkets offer discounts and promotions, it becomes more affordable for customers. Products offered at a discounted price are incorporated in sales promotions during events and activities (Nagadeepa, Selvi, & Pushpa, 2015).

H5: Sales Promotion is Positively Associated with Impulse Purchase of Green Beauty Products.

9. f) Peer Influence

Peer effects, as it is commonly called in the research on economics and marketing, is a general phrase that illustrates how an individual's views, values, or behaviors are impacted by those of others in their peer group (Hernández-Julián & Peters, 2018). Shopping with friends increases shoppers' willingness to purchase. The likelihood of buying a product rises by more than 60% due to peer influence (Bapna & Umyarov, 2015). According to research, a shopper's relationships with their companions can have a substantial impact on their decision to make a green buy (Y. A. Kim & Srivastava, 2007). Therefore, the study's last hypothesis is: H6: Peer Influence is Positively Associated with Impulse Purchase of Green Beauty Products.

10. V. Research Methodology

The present research has conducted to identify the factors affectingimpulsepurchasing of green beauty products in Dhaka City. The study used a quantitative research approach. The population in this study were all customers in Dhaka who purchase green beauty products from various superstores, retail chains, shopping malls, and departmental stores. A simple random sampling technique is used to collect data. This research uses a research sample that amounted to 214 respondents. Any sample size greater than 200 is adequate for a practical data analysis (Hoe, 2008). For a sophisticated path model, 200 samples or even more are desirable (Kline & Rosenberg, 2010). A selfadministrated structured questionnaire was provided to the respondents. All the constructs were measured by 5 points Likert scale (1-Strongly Disagree, 2 -Disagree, 3 -Neutral, 4 -Agree, 5 -Strongly Agree). 2. This result suggests that the respondents to the survey are well educated.

11. b) Multicollinearity Testing

The variance Inflation Factor is used to evaluate multicollinearity (VIF). A VIF score of larger than 5 indicates construct collinearity. Hence the value should be lower than 5.

12. Table 3: Multicollinearity Testing Construct Name and Items VIF

Perceived Product Benefits (PB) PB1: I favor organic cosmetics because there are no adverse effects. PB2: I think there are many health advantages to using green cosmetics that are made with the environment in mind. PB3: I prefer green cosmetics because they don't contain synthetic coloring.

1.105 1.295

13. 1.213

Environmental Concern (EC) EC1: Because organic cosmetics are better for the earth, I buy them. EC2: I like using disposable organic cosmetics since they are convenient. EC3: Green items, in my opinion, do not hurt the environment. EC4: I think using green items reduces pollution.

1.375 1.820 2.087 1.811 Green Trust (GT) GT1: Green products' environmental commitments are, in my opinion, largely trustworthy. GT2: In my experience, this product's environmental performance is generally reliable. Determinants Impacting Impulse Buying of Green Beauty Products green products. PI3: I frequently go shopping with my friends for green products.

1.821 Impulse Buying behavior (IBB) IBB1: I prefer to make impulse purchases. IBB3: I prefer impulse purchases on a regular basis. IBB2: impulse purchases make me happy.

14. 2.019 1.934

Source: Statistical Data Processing using PLS According to the findings of the multicollinearity test presented in Table 3, there exists no collinearity in any of the construct because every itemunder each construct in the study model has a VIF value of less than 5.

15. c) Scale Validity, Reliability, and Assessment

Each construct, and the visual elements used in this study, were developed via examinations of the literature, and changed in response to the impulse buying habits of many consumers in Dhaka City. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis were used to enhance and validate the measurement scale (CFA). Before using the factor analysis, it has confirmed that the conditions of normality and linearity were upheld. If the average variance extracted (AVE) and the external factor loadings are more than 0.50, the explained variance will be larger than the measurement error in convergent validity (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). As a result, the computed values for the factor loadings are respectively.583 and.934, AVE in this study are and 0.537 and.746. (Table 4). The values of composite reliability (CR) (Raykov, 1997) and Cronbach's alpha, which are meant to estimate scale reliability with the recommended threshold criterion of 0.70 for both, are used to quantify the internal consistency of the (Nunnally, 1994). Cronbach's alpha values and composite reliability values, respectively, vary from 0.179 to 0.830 and 0.701 to 0.898, as shown in Table 4. The measurement model consequently demonstrates good construct validity and reliability. The results of the first hypothesis test, which are shown in Table 6, show that consumer impulse purchases of green beauty products are strongly influenced by the perceived benefits of the product (? = 0.152, t-value =2.072; p-value =0.039; p-value is less than .05). H1 is consequently approved. Table 6 further shows that customers' environmental concerns have a significant impact on their spontaneous purchases of green beauty products (? = 0.304, t-value = 3.920; pvalue =0.000; p-value is less than .05). Therefore, H2 is approved. It may be said that H3 is disapproved based on the findings of the H3 test, which show that green trust has a negative relationship with impulsive purchases of green beauty goods with a value of (?= -0.013; t-value= 0.297; p-value=0.766, p-value is greater than .05),H4 is likewise rejected based on the results of the test, which show that product packaging had no effect on customers' impulse purchases of green beauty products (?= -0.042, t-value= 1.076 ; p-value=0.283, p-value is greater than.05). Based on the findings, (?= 0.176, t-value= 3.428; p-value= 0.001, pvalue is less than.05) which are shown in Table 6 and demonstrate that sales promotions offered by marketers' impact customers' impulsive purchasing behavior regarding green cosmetics, the H5 is also accepted. The findings of the H6 test, which are shown in Table 6, indicate that peer influence is positively associated with customers' impulse purchases of green cosmetics with the value of (?= 0.348, t-value=4.481; p-value=.000, p-value is less than.05).Accordingly, H6 is also accepted.

16. Construct

17. VII. Result and Discussion

The current study exhibits factors impacting consumer impulse purchase regarding green beauty products at various superstores/ retail chains or supermarkets in Bangladesh's central region. The result of the first hypothesis test in this study shows that consumer impulse purchases of green beauty products are strongly influenced by the perceived benefits of the product (p-value<0.05) (Table 6), which is also supported by other studies (Nguyen et al., 2019). Therefore, the advantages green cosmetics provide for users influence impulsive purchasing significantly. Marketers must concentrate on creating product values. The second hypothesis confirms that customers' environmental concerns have a significant impact on their spontaneous purchases of green beauty products (p-value<0.05), which is also supported by (Van Loo et al., 2013). As the prevalence of impulse purchases rises, marketers are focusing heavily on environmental concerns. Marketing professionals should implement initiatives to raise environmental awareness. The third and fourth hypotheses show contradictory findings that green trust has a negative relationship with impulsive purchases of green beauty goods (p>.005) and product packaging did not affect customers' impulse purchases of green beauty products (p>.005). This finding contradicts earlier research (Tarabieh, 2021) and (Mubarak, 2020). Considering these findings, we can say people in Bangladesh are less trusting of green cosmetics. Marketers must reflect carefully on how to boost consumer confidence in sustainable and environmental cosmetics. The fifth hypothesis confirms that sales promotions offered by marketers' impact customers' impulsive purchasing behavior regarding green cosmetics. The result is also supported by previous studies (Nagadeepa et al., 2015). Marketers must provide consumers with time-worthy sales promotions. The sixth hypothesis shows that peer influence is positively associated with customers' impulse purchases of green cosmetics, which is also supported by (J. E. Kim & Kim, 2012). Retail marketers must develop a pleasant shopping environment for customers so that more people can travel together and influence one another.

18. VIII. Study Implications and Future Research

Consumers' impulsive buying behavior may be caused by a variety of circumstances, still, this study will give consumers a clear understanding of what variables are motivating them to buy green beauty goods impulsively. A further goal may be to investigate the effects of Bangladesh's green beauty products marketing techniques. Retailers in Bangladesh will benefit from the findings of this research because they will have a better understanding of consumers' impulsive buying behavior, which will help them create effective marketing and merchandising strategies. The industry for beauty products in Bangladesh will be better understood by businesses with this information. In several significant areas, this study will offer theoretical additions to the literature on green marketing. Market managers of products with improved environmental performance will benefit from some of the information in the current investigation. Our findings will, first and foremost, offer some recommendations for businesses that decide to either capitalize on green products existing in their portfolios or incorporate green features into new products. This study will serve as an additional tool for research in this area.

19. IX. Limitations

Fundamental limitations persist despite meticulous study efforts; they might be solved by future scholars. The results cannot be extended to other regions or cities of the country due to differences in consumer behavior and financial capability. Another difficulty was gathering data from impulsive shoppers since the researcher did not visit many of the retail or superstore locations in Dhaka where customers locate or visit. Although there are many more factors that contribute to impulsive buying, the study develops a research framework with six extrinsic variables. It is required to include other intrinsic characteristics, such as interpersonal influence, consumer engagement, consumption habits, and the economic history of consumers in different regions of the country, to obtain more comprehensive insights.

20. X. Conclusion

Bangladesh's demand for eco-friendly items has greatly expanded because of the country's growing environmental awareness. According to the Bangladesh Cosmetics and Toiletries Importers Association, 80 percent of cosmetics are produced in Bangladesh. All the rest are imports. People are purchasing green beauty products increasingly regularly, spontaneously, and impulsively, as a consequence of a variety of factors. As a result, to develop efficient marketing strategies, marketers must identify the possible reasons why consumers buy organic cosmetics on an impulsive basis.

Figure 1. Figure 1 :
1Figure 1: The Study's Conceptual Framework a) Perceived Product BenefitsProduct benefits are the values customers get by using a product to satisfy their needs minus associated costs. Many businesses are searching for methods to "fine-tune" their product mix with preserving diversity and unique products (Grocer, 2011). Some marketers now portray their goods as being healthy(Bublitz & Peracchio, 2015). Thus, humans have a tendency toward utilizing and purchasing products that are natural and organic. Customers have a positive attitude toward the desire to buy green cosmetics, as well as a positive perception of the environment.(Nguyen et al., 2019). Therefore, the study's first hypothesis is: H1: Perceived Product Benefits are Positively Associated with Impulse Purchase of Green Beauty Products.
Figure 2.
RQ1: What Factors do Contribute to Impulse Buying
Regarding Green Beauty Products?
RQ2: What Considerations should Marketers Consider
when Developing Tactics for Impulse Purchases of Green
Beauty Products?
Figure 3. Table 1 :
No. Variable The Number of Indicators Research References
1 Perceived Product Benefits (PB) 3 (Nguyen et al., 2019)
2 Environmental Concern 4 (Van Loo et al., 2013)
3 Green Trust 2 (Tarabieh, 2021)
4 Packaging 3 (Deng, 2009)
5 Sales Promotion 3 (Nagadeepa et al., 2015)
6 Peer Influence 3 (Bapna & Umyarov, 2015)
7 Impulse Buying behavior 3 (Rook & Fisher, 1995) (Sharma, Sivakumaran, & Marshall, 2010)
Figure 4. Table 2 :
Description Frequency Percentage Description Frequency Percentage
Gender Occupation
1. Male 105 49.1 1. student 93 43.4
2. Female 2. Businessmen
109 50.9 3. service holders 38 17.8
Total 214 100 4. housewife 73 34.1
5. others
Age 6 2.8
1. below 20 24 11.2 4 1.9
2. 20-30
3. 31-40 114 53.3 Total 214 100.0
4. 41-50 58 27.1 Income
5. above 50
17 7.9 1. below 15000 60 28.0
2. 15001-30000
1 .5 3. 15100-30000 62 29.0
Total 214 100.0 4. 30100-45000 5. 45100-60000 60 28.0
Education 27 12.6
1. below SSC 12 5.6 5 2.3
Figure 5. Table 2
's demographic profile lists the respondents (34.6%) had a high school diploma, 35.5%
respondents' gender, age, level of education, had a bachelor's degree, and 18.2% had a master's
occupation, and income. Male respondents made up degree (n = 74). The respondents' gender, age,
49.1% (n = 105) while female respondents made up education level, occupation, and income are listed in the
50.9% (n = 109), as shown by the frequency distribution demographic profile in Table
in Table 2. In addition, 53.3% of respondents were
between the ages of 20 and 30 (n = 114), whereas
27.1%were between the ages of 31 and 40 (n = 58).
These findings would suggest that younger age groups
are more likely than older ones to engage in impulsive
purchasing. 43.5% of respondents are students (n = 93)
and 34.1% are service members (n = 73). Most
Figure 6. Table 5 :
EC 0.794
GT 0.098 0.739
IBB 0.789 0.079 0.864
PB 0.777 0.053 0.722 0.731
PCK -0.077 0.541 -0.146 -0.129 0.810
PI 0.756 0.150 0.787 0.679 -0.149 0.848
SP 0.581 0.142 0.632 0.529 -0.009 0.576 0.767
Figure 7. Table 6
Figure 8. Table 6 :
Hypothesis Coefficients (?) Sample Mean Deviation T Statistics P Values Significant
PB -> IBB 0.152 0.155 0.073 2.072 0.039 Significant
EC -> IBB 0.304 0.307 0.077 3.920 0.000 Significant
GT -> IBB -0.013 -0.002 0.045 0.297 0.766 Not Significant
PCK -> IBB -0.042 -0.049 0.039 1.076 0.283 Not Significant
SP -> IBB 0.176 0.174 0.051 3.428 0.001 Significant
PI -> IBB 0.348 0.344 0.078 4.481 0.000 Significant
Note: T-Statistics and P -Values

Appendix A

Appendix A.1 Acknowledgement

The author is appreciative of the journal's anonymous referees for their incredibly helpful suggestions that helped the article's quality.

Appendix B

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© 2022 Global JournalsDeterminants Impacting Impulse Buying of Green Beauty Products
Date: 1970-01-01